Many studies have tried to show co-relation between late night eating and how it may lead to diabetes and obesity.
There are not many investigations as which revel what are its main drivers and its implication on individuals.
As study published in journal Cell Metabolism has highlighted how eating late night affects human body.
How was the study conducted ?
The study was conducted by selecting a group of sixteen obese and overweight individuals.
They were put up on calculated, early timed and prepaid diet for 3 days after fixed 2-3 weeks cycle of fixed sleep/wake cycle.
After those 3 days the meals were delayed by two and half hours i.e 250 minutes late at night.
How late night eating affects body ?
Following findings were derived from the study.
- Increased Hunger,
- Decreased energy use/ expenditure in body and
- Changes in Adipogenesis i.e how body stores fat in body.
How late increase eating increases hunger and its effect?
It was reported that more than 50 percent individuals said that they felt hungrier desired for more salty and vegetable food.
It was also found that the there were changes in below mentioned two hormones
Leptin and Acylated (active) Ghrelin which regulate satiety.
Leptin responsible for decrease in hunger was found to decreased in concentration in blood in individuals eating food late.
While Acylated (active) Ghrelin which promotes hunger was found to increase in concentration in individuals eating food late.
This decrease in Leptin and increase in Acylated (active) Ghrelin leads to more hunger.
More hunger causes individuals to eat more leading to more intake of energy and may further lead to obesity and type-1 diabetes.
How sleeping late leads to decrease in energy use /expenditure in body ?
The studies found that the individuals eating late consumed low amount of calories when awake and while performing daily activities as compared to individuals eating early.
It was also found that late eating individuals core body temperature was less as compared to individuals eating food early.
This might also be due to less calories burning in late eating individuals. This might be due to decrease in metabolism and increase in storage of calories in form of fat. *
How eating late may lead to diabetes and weight gain i. e obesity ?
What is role of eating late night in Fat Breakdown:
It was found that late night eating led to decreased response or activity of genes like PLD6, DECR1, and ASAH1 responsible for lipid breakdown or lipolysis.
Lipolysis is process which helps to use stored fat to produce energy when body is calorie deficient like during exercise and fasting.
But the genes which promote lipolysis decrease their activity for late night eating individuals suggest less usage of stored fat.
What is role of eating late night in Fat Production:
Further the genes responsible for fat synthesis like GPAM, ACLY, AACS, and CERK were found to be more responsive in late night eating individuals.
This means more fat may be produced in individuals who tend to eat late in night.
In above both processes genes responsible for lipolysis (promoting fat breakdown) and lipid synthesis (promoting fat production) may lead to diabetes and weight gain i.e obesity in long term.
What is role of eating late night in Fat accumulation.
It was found that genes like GADD45ƴ responsible for passing information to prevent adipogenesis were found to be less active.
Further genes like THBS1 responsible for passing information to promote adipogenesis were found to be more active.
Adipogenesis is process resulting generation of fat-laden cells, that is, adipocytes, are developed and accumulated as adipose tissue at various sites in the body.
Increase in fat laden cells in body may lead to Diabetes and obesity in long run.
This is how eating late night may lead to diabetes and obesity.
It was also suggested in above study that all above findings needs more analysis with larger group of individuals to establish them as facts.