What is Type – 2 Diabetes?

Type-2 Diabetes is caused due changing lifestyles and dietary habits leading to high blood sugar than normally found in the blood. Let’s refer to adjacent Pictures which has

  1. Dumbbells depict the essentiality of exercise in diabetes.
  2. The fruits and oat bowl depicts a balanced diet for diabetes.
  3. Weighing Machine depicting control on body weight in diabetes.
  4. Water depicting hydration in diabetes.
  5. Medicines, glucometers,s, etc. depicting their use if affected with diabetes.

All the above referred 5 things are part of the lifestyle and dietary habits and any imbalance it them can lead to the condition of type 2 diabetes.

In Normal circumstances, sugar from food accumulates in the blood. Further hormone Insulin moves this accumulated sugar inside the cell to produce energy. The inability of insulin to carry sugar from the blood inside cells in the required proportion leads to the condition of Type-2 Diabetes.

In Type-2 Diabetes your body is either not able to use Insulin properly or is not producing enough insulin to normalize High Blood Sugar.

What Causes Type-2 Diabetes:

Generally, Multiple causes lead to the culmination of Type-2 Diabetes. Following are the main causes:

  1. Genetics: There are various genetic mutations that are passed from parents to children or next Generations. Further, if any one of your last generations has Type-2 Diabetes and all other causes listed below are applicable to individuals then he is susceptible to getting Type – 2 Diabetes.
  2. Obesity: Being Overweight means your daily calorie consumption is more than the daily calories requirement which is leading to the accumulation of extra calories in your body, mostly near the abdomen portion which is one of the prime causes of high blood sugar.
  3. Ethnicity and Age: Research shows that Black Africans and South Asians are more prone to diabetes between the age of 24-26 years while white people are prone at the age of 39-40 years.
  4. Lifestyle: People with an unhealthy lifestyle are more prone to Type-2 Diabetes consuming excessive alcohol, smoking, excessive, untimely, and unhealthy food consumption, absence of exercise, etc.
  5. Pre-existing Medical Conditions: People with are already suffering from Prediabetes,   High- Cholesterol, Hypertension, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and High triglyceride Levels are more prone to develop Type-2 Diabetes.

Following are symptoms of Type -2 Diabetes:

All below symptoms are someway interrelated leading to each other.

  1. Frequent Urination
  2. Excessive thirst
  3. Extremely tiredness
  4. Increased hunger
  5. Weight loss
  6. Blurred vision
  7. The longer healing time of wounds

In a normal course, the body converts carbohydrate molecules in food to sugar/glucose. This sugar/glucose is transported across the body through blood. With the increased concentration of sugar/glucose in blood Pancreas organ produces more hormone Insulin which in turn helps sugar/glucose molecules in the blood to enter cells where they are converted into energy for body functions.

The inability of the body to produce the Hormone Insulin in the required proportion in Type-2 Diabetes leads to the accumulation of sugar/glucose in the blood resulting in saturation and High Blood Sugar. Continuous increase and High Blood Sugar put high pressure on Organ Pancreas. This condition leads to the inability of the pancreas to produce enough Insulin and a further decrease in its ability with ever-increasing High Blood Sugar. Further Organ Kidney in an effort to maintain sugar/glucose balance (Glucose homeostasis) in blood tries to eliminate sugar/glucose through urine leading to the appearance of symptoms like increased urination. Since a large amount of water is excreted out of the body due to frequent Urination there appear other symptoms of excessive thirst which leads to increased intake of liquid. Because sugar/glucose does not enter cells in absence of insulin body starts to get extremely tired which is one of the symptoms. Extreme tiredness leads to increased hunger causing increased intake of food and High Blood Sugar.  Further, since the body is unable to produce energy in absence of sugar/glucose in cells causing the body starts breaking stored fats leading to symptom of unintended weight loss. Also, High Blood Sugar leads to swelling in the eye lens causing symptoms of blurred vision. High Blood Sugar also leads to slowing of blood circulation which makes it difficult for blood to supply necessary nutrients and oxygen to wounds causing a longer healing time for wounds.

Almost all the above symptoms are common in Type-1 and Type-2 Diabetes.

How is Type-2 Diabetes Diagnosed?

Generally above symptoms in addition to High Blood Sugar is enough evidence to confirm Type-2 Diabetes but the following tests are commonly conducted to confirm the same.

  1. HbA1c Test: This blood test determines average blood sugar/Glucose over the period of 2-3 months.
  2. Fasting Plasma Glucose: This test is generally carried out empty stomach early morning to test blood Sugar/ Glucose. Any food intake before 8 hours of this test is to be avoided to get accurate results.
  3. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): This test is generally carried out empty stomach early morning and immediately after the test food or sweet is consumed and blood is again drawn after 2 hours of consumption to study the difference and variation in Blood sugar to arrive at conclusion.

What is Treatment of Type-2 Diabetes?

Type -2 Diabetes is generally treated in a combination with medicines and lifestyle changes given below. Treatment varies on many other factors like age, existing diseases or conditions, etc. Also, there is a need for constant monitoring of Blood Sugar to keep it within normal range.

How is Type-2 Diabetes managed?

If Type-2 Diabetes is not managed timely and effectively may lead to the following commonly associated compilations which may further deteriorate as it progresses ahead.

  1. Diet: Eating a less carbohydrate diet and cutting down on snacks.
  2. Exercise: Exercise is a must in order to burn down excess or accumulated sugar in the blood due to non-production of Insulin or to assist with injected Insulin to bring down High Blood sugar.
  3. Drinking-Water: Drinking a higher amount of water will help to decrease High Blood Sugar in blood and help Kidney in the excretion of sugar from urine.
  4. Beverages: Certain beverages like Alcohol, Soda, energy drinks with sugar, Fruit Juices, High Fat Milk.
  5. Smoking: Smoking may increase resistance to injected Insulin. Further, it may lead to increased dehydration during summers or higher temperatures leading to High Blood Sugar.
  6. Reduce Portion size: Decrease in the amount of food during lunch or dinner or eating too much food in one meal increases not only blood sugar but also demands more insulin in the body.
  7. Sedentary life and intermittent walks: Avoid sitting for long continuous hours and taking intermittent walks in between an hour around the desk will help.
  8. Processed Foods: Processed foods like chips, Snacks with high salt and preservatives, Sweet Cookies, etc should be avoided.

What are compilations associated with Type-2 Diabetes?

  1. Cardiovascular Diseases: narrowing of arteries along with Hearth Attacks, Strokes, and angina.
  2. Skin Problems may lead to itching and may lead to bacterial or fungal infection.
  3. Reduced or poor blood circulation to feet with increased incidence of numbness which decreases the ability of feet to heal on damage further leading to gangrene or foot loss.
  4. Eye damage may lead to cataracts, glaucoma, blurred vision, retinal damage, or retinopathy.
  5. Neuropathy or nerve damage.


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